LONDON — Scientists have mapped the complete genetic codes of 21breast cancers and created a catalogue of the mutations thataccumulate in breast cells, raising hopes that the disease may beable to be spotted earlier and treated more effectively in future. The research, the first of its kind, untangles the genetic historyof how cancer evolves, allowing scientists to identify mutationalpatterns that fuel the growth of breast tumors, and start to workout the processes behind them. These findings have implications for our understanding of howbreast cancers develop over the decades before diagnosis in adultsand might help to find possible targets for improved diagnosis ortherapeutic intervention in the future, said Mike Stratton, wholed the research team. Breast cancer kills more than 450,000 women a year worldwide and isthe most common cancer among women, accounting for 16 percent ofall cases, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). A study last year by the Institute for Health Metrics andEvaluation in the United States found that global breast cancercases have more than doubled in just three decades, from 641,000cases in 1980 to 1.6 million cases in 2010 a pace that farexceeds global population growth. Cryolipolysis Equipment
This is the first time we’ve been able to delve fully into breastcancer genomes in such a thorough way, said Peter Campbell, headof cancer genetics and genomics at the Wellcome Trust SangerInstitute in Cambridge, where the studies were led. The work had given scientists a full panoramic view of the cancergenome and helped them identify mutational patterns rather thanindividual mutations in specific genes, he added. We’ve known for many years now that all cancers are due toabnormalities of DNA … that occur in every single cell of thebody over the course of a lifetime, said Stratton. IPL Beauty Equipment Manufacturer
But although we’ve known that, it’s remarkable how rudimentaryour knowledge is about what the processes are that cause theseabnormalities, these mutations in our DNA. Stratton’s team sequenced the genomes of the 21 breast cancers andcatalogued all the mutations. They found five major processes thatcause one letter of code to be changed to another letter. Geneticcode comes in four DNA letters, A,C,G and T. Stratton said one of the most exciting findings was that one ofthese processes is characterized by small pockets of massivelymutated regions of the genome. China Laser Tattoo Removal Machine
This sudden storm of mutations is often seen in breast cancers,he explained in an audio briefing. While his team doesn’t fully understand the process behind thesestorms, they think it may be down to components of the cell whosenormal function is to edit, or mutate, DNA. As this work continues, we can hope to understand how breastcancer develops and thus how it might be treated moreeffectively, he said in a statement.